In some instances, the policy of dispersal was unofficially enforced to include a ban on the gathering of Japanese Canadians who were not members of a nuclear family Miki, It was a new form of containment, one that proved to be much more effective in the long term. Unable to live in the same area, and sometimes to even meet, dispersal fractured community ties between different families.
The function of memory for how many third, fourth, and fifth generation Japanese Canadians relate to internment, if they do at all, is an example of how the previous community infrastructure has been splintered and replaced by the family unit.
Oikawa points out how generations later, rather than a community-based and centered knowledge of internment, an uneven memory-scape exists for many Japanese Canadians, constructed through memories shared and withheld to varying degrees, and often unique to and irregular between individual family members I would argue that through dispersal, the family unit, now disconnected from their community lacked the social and community infrastructure which might work towards remembering together and forging different, new postwar connections.
In this way, the eventual assimilation of Japanese Canadians was facilitated.
However, this assimilation functions more as a vehicle through which the state denies its own violence through its selective politics of inclusion rather than an example of successful Canadian multiculturalism. The Japanese Canadian redress movement came into being during the same time that multiculturalism was adopted as an official national policy. It was a moment of building national narratives that emphasized tolerance of difference, and that accommodating such difference was a Canadian value Miki, The narrative produced by the state surrounding redress presented internment as one unfortunate incident that in the end was best for everyone, since it resulted in the incorporation of Japanese Canadians into the country Miki, In essence, the state was able to spin the comprehensive destruction of Japanese Canadian communities as a boon for the nation, and for Japanese Canadians themselves.
In fact, dispersal is credited with the perceived economic and educational success of post-internment Japanese Canadians Miki, ; Oikawa, While the movement towards redress itself can be considered a success on behalf of the Strategy Committee of the NAJC, former members of the committee, such as Roy Miki reflect that very little was actually repaired.
Essay on Japanese Internment in Canada
Oikawa and Miki note that most younger Japanese Canadians construct their identities based around Canadianness primarily and that a sense of community for Japanese Canadians is rare and fractured. The same logic which excluded and incarcerated them -that Japanese Canadian communities were sites of degradation—now formed part of the basis of their inclusion. In the end, redress was an act of repair perhaps mostly for the state and its ability to reproduce itself as a benevolent source of justice.
Within this configuration of carceral infrastructures, and post-internment political maneuvering, the redress of Japanese Canadians is made possible by containing their internment to a discrete, discernable event, rather than a continuation of the colonial violence perpetuated by the state, which has not ended. Proclamation February 19, President Gerald Ford rescinding Executive Order Includes non-Japanese spouses and parents of an individual of Japanese ancestry in the definition of the term "of Japanese ancestry" for purposes of redress eligibility.
George Bush's Statement on Signing the Civil Liberties Act Amendments of This legislation fulfills the commitment that this country made in to individuals of Japanese ancestry who were interned or relocated during World War II, and to their families.
Articles from the Time Period New York Times Historical Archive up to three years before the current date The Times has covered important national events as the country's "newspaper of record" since Ethnic NewsWatch to the present Newspaper, magazine and journal articles from ethnic, minority, and native presses. ProQuest Congressional Provides access to information about the work of the U. Includes hearing transcripts, committee reports, bills, committee prints, the Congressional Record, the Federal Register, the Code of Federal Regulations, and public laws.
Can also be used to search for presidential papers.
Tip: Try a Basic search using the search terms Japanese and relocation or evacuation. Densho Digital Archive: The Japanese American Legacy Project The Densho Digital Archive holds nearly visual histories hours of recorded video interviews and over 10, historic photos, documents, and newspapers. Register for a free account to search the archive takes business days , or view selected videos, images and more in their online Learning Center.
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- A Look Back at Japanese Internment - WSJ.
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- Japanese Canadian Internment: Prisoners in their own Country.
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Japanese American National Museum: Collections Online Browse or search several documents and photographs from the museum's permanent collection. Roosevelt signed Executive Order , which gave the U. Although the word Japanese did not appear in the executive order, it was clear that only Japanese Americans were targeted, though some other immigrants, including Germans, Italians, and Aleuts , also faced detention during the war.
Japanese Canadian Internment: Prisoners in their own Country | The Canadian Encyclopedia
On March 31, , Japanese Americans along the West Coast were ordered to report to control stations and register the names of all family members. They were then told when and where they should report for removal to an internment camp. Some of those who survived the camps and other individuals concerned with the characterization of their history have taken issue with the use of the term internment , which they argue is used properly when referring to the wartime detention of enemy aliens but not of U.
Many of those who are critical of the use of internment believe incarceration and detention to be more appropriate terms. Japanese Americans were given from four days to about two weeks to settle their affairs and gather as many belongings as they could carry. In many cases, individuals and families were forced to sell some or all of their property, including businesses, within that period of time. Some Euro-Americans took advantage of the situation, offering unreasonably low sums to buy possessions from those who were being forced to move. Many homes and businesses worth thousands of dollars were sold for substantially less than that.
Nearly 2, Japanese Americans were told that their cars would be safely stored until they returned. However, the U.
Army soon offered to buy the vehicles at cut-rate prices, and Japanese Americans who refused to sell were told that the vehicles were being requisitioned for the war. After being forcibly removed from their homes, Japanese Americans were first taken to temporary assembly centres. From there they were transported inland to the internment camps critics of the term internment argue that these facilities should be called prison camps.